19 January, 2015

DIY: Turn your bike into an e-bike for yourself - Step 4/5: Inserting the batteries and setting up the controller

At first I had tried to place the driver Kelly  KBS48101X, 40A, 24-48V  (whose operation will explain in another post) for its multiple options configuration, especially the possibility of regenerative braking adjustable with potentiometer or voltage. There are  dozens of economic drivers on aliexpress  but not the quality of Kelly, that comes with PC connection cable (COM port) included, instructions and downloadable software free, with multiple parameters and configurations, and good technical support, but since I have not yet managed to apply the variable regenerative braking , and does not work in the case of failure of the hall sensors, especially because first I did not properly work (wiring of sensors hall bad indicated), notice the noise that gets in the first test engine, with hall sensors invested, losing 50% of its power:

The motor vibrated and overheated, as the controller. After consultation with the technical service of Kelly (very fast and friendly, I was told the problem quickly), I did not waste time with it, considering that a valuable controller came with the kit, I realized its advantages; after all GoldenMotor have as much as tested with this engine and work like a charm.
Comparing the only differences that make the BAC-028X more advantageous for my electric bike were:
  • Works on both sensor so as without them (very useful if eventually fails a hall).
  • Cruise Control what suffers Kelly (plus buttons leverage handles all functions);useful over long distances.
  • Easy to configure , USB connection (kelly requires a connection to COM port that modern computers do not bring, so we look for an adapter or old computer).
  • Possibility of PAS (pedal sensor, without pedaling the motor is not activated), legally binding.
I was connecting it, and everything worked great; engine at full power, silent, barely warmed, etc.

Features BAC-281 (and 028X) controller

  • Battery operated 24V, 36V and 48V with the same driver, to change parameter settings.
  • Cruise Control by pressing a button while you accelerate, the controller will maintain the same speed.
  • Programmable with USB cable (RS-232) sold separately for about 35 €.

Special features:
  • Cruise control and dual mode automatic with or without position sensors (Hall) in motor.
  • Configurable from 200 to 1000W.
  • Maximum speed limit, amps, acceleration, etc configurable.
  • Most comfortable user configurable parameters.
  • Automatic change to sensorless control in case of failure of the Hall.
  • Anti-theft alarm and locking wheel vibration detection
  • Configurable braking regenerative potential (activated only when the brakes are activated)
  • Continues to operate despite failures throttle or dead battery (following steps).
  • Works with 24V, 36V or 48V.
  • Communication errors by different speaker beeps.
  • Auto-detection and auto motor phase calibration.
  • Supports forward and reverse control motor.
  • Over current protection
  • Battery Protection Low Voltage
  • High reliability

Driver Settings

Interface configuration with the official program
As you see in the picture, I have it set to 70% regeneration for two reasons; first, by not admitting my battery over charging 20A, when it reaches this value with very steep slopes, the controller cuts regenerative braking, causing intermittent heavy braking quite uncomfortable ; On the other hand, 70% is not too strong nor too soft, so you do not want surprises when braking gently slow.

I try to take care of my valuable batteries, respecting 1C charge / discharge, setting 20Ah continuously , and promptly peaks 35A to 36V. I would also be sure to put that downloads can briefly give 40A, but better to be cautious; what is marked on the configuration does not usually coincide 100% with what later requires the controller to the battery. On the other hand, have reduced the maximum rate to 82% not to raise 32 kms / hour on flat, and keep a reasonable and almost legal limits. I have not been able to yet PAS, and the REV section, which is the reverse, what I have annulled because it is not used on the bike, taking advantage of the switch to change the mode of the beam .

Installing the handles and placing the wiring

in the original manual of Goldemotor is all very well explained for installing the kit, though there's additional info in the form of videos on Youtube.

Install the new handles is subject; if you have the controls of changes in handles , can you stick to them; and secondly they are longer than usual, and they can not be fully put the paste in gray plastic bezel. Otherwise is a breeze.
To help put them in case of being very fair, it is getting a little wet with water to slide better; drying once they remain perfectly fixed:

We can help with a plastic hammer to finish fit:

The problems have appeared to me to see that no "marry" very well with my fist changes ; element controller and buttons is so fat that do not get very good; I had to put handles on a compromise position manageability of both:

The downshift hits with handle, and I had to cut the dremel to use it:

Note the appearance of the claw downshift after cropping
Inserting the batteries and controller

BAC028 connection
After much reflection, and try different positions of the batteries as shown in the following image:

Finally I decided to put them supported transversely as I said in the previous post, so that most of the weight going forward, are well supported, safe from side impacts, and supports at the rear with appropriately made ​​of polystyrene extruded, durable and lightweight:

It is very important to place insulating separators to prevent short circuits
Keep in mind that road vibrations can affect packs, so you should always insulate well all possible short circuitsthat may arise from wear protection, especially post gums and supports that set the batteries to any bumps, I have placed a strip of sponge-rubber adhesive in all critical areas of support and brown rubber strips on the lid to press and grip:

Everything that contributes to avoid short is welcome
In the hollow where the controller will remove the insulation to improve heat transfer to the rear plate 3 mm; I made the holes and then riveted with rivets 4x20 mm:

Once submitted batteries in place and tied driver, let conexionando everything.

The cables, fix them before I preferred weld pressure first; gives more safety and durability; in my case as coming too cable (to place the battery where we want) I chose to shorten, ( if we use the control that comes with the kit, and rolled her in a hole, the connection does not take more than 10 minutes ):

The Kelly comes with this type of connectors; soldiers are bombproof

We put the connectors in place, and using pliers round tips threw connector until it "clicks":
HALL sensors connector (Kelly)
To avoid sparks, is suitable as already said, placing a 2K2 resistor at the main switch (which cuts in the positive connection of the battery to the controller), as seen in the image below, or place a switch high amperage to prevent the spark of constant significantly degrade the connections:

Connection of main switch
But equally or more important to place the resistance bypassing the switch, (with which lengthen the life of the switch), is to place a diode to discharge the energy produced by regenerative braking by the motor movement in the battery even when the controller is not fed, as shown in page 30 of the manual . 

So would the three motor phases, each with its corresponding color:

Install a safety fuse 30A slow, so if you have a short unwanted, I have placed on the negative side, but is also very convenient between the two packs of the way, (or even if we each connector . the maximum security) later replaced it with a slow fuse 25A Round 250V because it was overheating; It is aluminum and electricity goes worse than copper:

Fuse with quick connectors. To the Left. You can see a diode end by removing unnecessary
I took a thermal fuse that came with a battery of 10A at 250V, and if it rises above 90 ° C, is there something wrong; and cuts the current flow:

The thermal fuse is very useful for adding security: Recommended one that jumps to 60

The fuse must be in contact with batteries; I have stuck with one American to tape:

Installing wiring for balanced load
As we discussed in the first inning of this project, if not incorporate load control in the battery itself, need an external one (for each x balanced loads), we will have to get a cable from each union taking him outside to connect to balancer load (which measure the load on these points, using them in turn to equal). In addition we will use these connectors to connect the viewer charge level (Cell-log). I found another way to get rolling cables rather than directly welding joints:

Thin wires will draw by a side for connection to the charger when necessary
We put them all together trying to protect them and they are well identified:

Detail of the quick connector; I soldered on the inside of the charging cables
As I have the display on the handlebars, I took her there the 10 cables are needed:

For charging a battery of 10 cells with the 1010B + needed two 5-wire connectors ; in Hobbyking, with the charger iCharger i1010B + I bought balancing connectors for 6-cell (eliminating the dremel then the negative pole was left) and pasting the silicone outer shield for easy use and prevent breakage and water ingress.

The iCharger brings a small PCB to connect batteries of 3 to 10 cells (for 10 must use May 2 cables):

Once prepared, we soldering wires and insulating them with PVC shrink tubing or electrical tape good:

If we are wrong in the position of any cables no problem, the iCharger notify us and we'll just be checking with the tester if the voltages are joining (connecting the first to the third connector has to be about 8V, then 10 , 8V, then add the 4V and about 15V, 41V and even if all the packs to be charged to 90%):

I left enough wire to comfortably handle lleguenal
Detail wiring for rolling:

The fact of having external sway system gives me more flexibility , less waste and discharge and loading rate; compact controls quite often fail load, besides being expensive and be quite limited. With the iCharger up to 300W of power loads are very fast; in about 8 hours I have fully charged (provided that the packs are not too unevenly).
If you look at the image below, I marked in black port of one of the connectors to avoid placing them upside down:

Foul to improve the theme of connection to the simplest negative and positive to do

You can see under the seat the main connector for battery charging
Installing a voltage display on the handlebars of the bike

I used this handy Monitor voltage up to 8 cells, with configurable alarm, which will place subject to the handlebars to show the voltage of the cells of one of the connectors, which help me to monitor the battery charge, and when prices drop below 3.5V, charge:

As the bike is going to be exposed to rain, it is essential make it waterproof, so it is best to disarm and apply a layer of epoxy glue all electronics, and around the screen, very careful not to cover the buttons, both by the front and behind by:

This little trick will waterproof electronic viewfinder
Then I tied a plastic visor shape with flanged electrician fixing it with thermo-gluer:

And here we can see it working , showing the loading of the first 5 packs of 9 batteries 18650;as you can see no more than 9mV difference between cells:

If we do not apply epoxy, we should put it in a transparent box and watertight
The connector is loose we put some duct tape not to get any water.

Replacing the controller Kelly Goldenmotor

Finally the installation was me well, pretty tight space.

As I said at the beginning of the entry, a month changed the driver to test for GoldenMotor, and the truth is going quite well (albeit much less configurable):

I changed the position to help fixing batteries
Like the other, I've stuck to the aluminum base plate with epoxy glue or heat to help cool it, besides screwing.

Connecting a front flashlight battery

It was time to retire my old led flashlight and take the battery as a power source, it occurred to me adapt a broken LED Flashlight (switch bad) by cutting the front. 
To feed it, first of all put a 1A fuse:

To reduce the voltage of 36V to 3.3V DC , nothing better than a DC / DC converter economicof DX.com, covered with silicone to make it waterproof, and glued to aluminum to reduce its temperature controller; (Be careful to not use it without charge at the output , or the regulator will burn, as I could see :():

DC / DC converter plugged with silicone: Do not leave him without charge or fry (for Chinese)
And this is the flashlight, riding a Cree T6 LED capable of 800 lumens without breaking a sweat (I have it reduced to 500 for temperature and longevity):

The flashlight attached to the handle with rivets
It is important to cut leaving the healthy part of the housing which makes heat transmitter to the internal circuit does not move; While we press the carcass and cut.
Then solder the wires into and sealed with silicone or tape :

The light emitted is impressive not just consumption ... there is no reason not to do night routes through the forest and soak up nature! :) (Although careful not to get very bumpy routes precaution). 
Later I also put a rear luggage rack with brake light ... but that's for another entry)

Increasing throughput with a condenser

To improve the response of the controller and reduce peak demand to the battery , I have placed welded to the connectors on the battery and capacitor 3300uF 50V:

I have also fixed the pack which gave me problems ; two 18650 batteries did not measure up to try to download a 2A quickly got off the 3,9V:

Battery renovated in a portable pack
More information: 
GoldenMotor Part 1 : Installing kit 

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